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There is a growing concern about the impact of ultra- fine particulates released from fires on the health of humans in fires and the related environmental pollution. However, there is no requirement to measure particle mass or number from legislated test fires and hence there is minimum information in the literature on this toxic hazard in fires. This work compares particulates generated from freely ventilated and restricted ventilation pine wood fires using the cone calorimeter. The standard cone calorimeter with freely ventilated combustion was modified by adding a discharge pipe to the cone heater that enabled direct fire product sampling from the cone outlet. The controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter was used for the restricted ventilation fire with metered air fed to the enclosure around the test area. Both tests used a radiant heat flux of 35kW/m2. Real-time particulate number and size distribution were measured using the Cambustion DMS 500 particle electrical mobility spectrometer. The particulate size distribution showed a peak of ultra-fine aerosol particles of <100 nm in the early stage of the fire development and then changed to the larger size (100-1000 nm) with a peak of 200 nm as the fire progressed. The restricted ventilation fire generated more particles. There were high numbers of 20 nm particles throughout the fire and these have the greatest health risks. Toxic gases were also measured from the raw exhaust gases using a heated Gasmet FTIR gas analyser.
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International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (9; 2019; Saint Petersburg, Russia). Proceedings of the Ninth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards [Электронный ресурс]. Vol. 2: 21-26 April 2019, Saint Petersburg, Russia / Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Autonomous Non-Profit Organization "Fire and Explosion Safety", Gefest Holding Ltd ; [edited by A. Snegirev [et al.]. — Электрон. текстовые дан. (1 файл : 98,7 Мб). — Saint Petersburg, 2019. — Загл. с титул. экрана. — Свободный доступ из сети Интернет (чтение, печать, копирование). — Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0. — <URL:http://elib.spbstu.ru/dl/2/k19-97.pdf>. — <URL:http://doi.org/10.18720/SPBPU/2/k19-97>.
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