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Title: Protection and decontamination of personnel: tutorial
Creators: Natkha Sergey V.; Oroeva Arina G.
Organization: Санкт-Петербургский политехнический университет Петра Великого
Imprint: Saint-Petersburg, 2022
Electronic publication: 2023
Collection: Учебная и учебно-методическая литература; Общая коллекция
Subjects: Безопасность жизнедеятельности человека; Ядерные реакторы — Безопасность; Защита от ионизирующих излучений
UDC: 614.876(075.8); 621.039.58(075.8)
Document type: Tutorial
File type: PDF
Language: English
Speciality code (FGOS): 20.00.00
Speciality group (FGOS): 200000 - Техносферная безопасность и природообустройство
DOI: 10.18720/SPBPU/2/z23-12
Rights: Свободный доступ из сети Интернет (чтение, печать)
Additionally: New arrival
Record key: RU\SPSTU\edoc\70629

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Table of Contents

  • CONTENTS
  • ABBREVIATIONS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • 1. Personnel exposure pathways
  • 1.1. Harmful and dangerous industrial factors
  • 1.2. Formation of harmful and dangerous factors at individual industries, facilities and enterprises
  • 1.2.1. Mining and processing of uranium ores
  • 1.2.2. Chemical processing of uranium and its enrichment
  • 1.2.3. Production of fuel elements and fuel assemblies based on uranium
  • 1.2.4. Production of power-grade uranium from highly enriched weapons-grade uranium
  • 1.2.5. Nuclear reactors
  • 1.2.6. Radiochemical production
  • 1.2.7. Plutonium production
  • 1.2.8. Disposal of nuclear weapons
  • 1.2.9. Dismantlement of nuclear submarines, surface ships with nuclear power plants and rehabilitation of contaminated territories
  • 1.2.10. Elimination of consequences of radiation accidents
  • 2. Methods of protection against external and internal radiation exposure
  • 2.1. Protection against external radiation exposure
  • 2.2. Protection against internal radiation exposure
  • 2.3. Protection public in emergency exposure situation
  • 2.3.1. Iodine blocking of the thyroid gland
  • 2.3.2. Evacuation
  • 2.3.3. Shelter
  • 2.3.4. Resettlement
  • 2.3.5. Prevention of accidental ingestion of radionuclides into the body by ingestion
  • 2.3.6. Decontamination people
  • 2.3.7. Limiting the consumption of food, milk and drinking water
  • 2.4. Identification and medical care of exposed persons
  • 2.4.1. Serious medical consequences
  • 2.4.2. Emergency medical examination, consultations and treatment
  • 2.4.3. Medical supervision
  • 2.5. Protection of international trade and commercial interests
  • 2.6. Termination or relaxation of response measures
  • 3. Personal protective equipment
  • 3.1. The history of the creation of personal protective equipment
  • 3.2. Purpose of personal protective equipment
  • 3.3. Classification of personal protective equipment
  • 3.4. Concepts of use personal protective equipment
  • 3.5. Respiratory protective devices
  • 3.5.1. Protective Concepts
  • 3.5.2. Components of a Respirator
  • 3.5.3. Self-Contained Breathable Gas Styles
  • 3.5.4. Tethered Supplied Breathable Gas Systems
  • 3.5.5. Air-Purifying (Negative-Pressure) Respirators
  • 3.5.6. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators
  • 3.5.7. Emerging Concepts and Issues
  • 3.6. Dermal Protective Equipment (Clothing)
  • 3.6.1. Components of personal protective equipment
  • 3.6.2. Ensembles of personal protective equipment
  • 3.6.3. Emerging Concepts
  • 3.7. Future Concepts to Improve Performance in Use
  • 4. Decontamination Technic
  • 4.1. Decontamination basis
  • 4.1.1. Sources of Radionuclide Contaminants
  • 4.1.2. Behavior Characteristics of Radionuclides
  • 4.1.3. Surface Contamination Mechanism
  • 4.2. Recent Decontamination Technologies
  • 4.2.1.1. Decontamination by gas (air) jet
  • 4.2.1.2. Decontamination by abrasive blowing
  • 4.2.1.3. Decontamination by High-Pressure Liquid Jetting
  • 4.2.1.4. Decontamination by vacuum cleaner
  • 4.2.1.5. Removing the contaminated layer and isolating the contaminated surface
  • 4.2.2. Chemical Methods
  • 4.2.2.1. Reagent Washing
  • 4.2.2.2. Foam Decontamination
  • 4.2.2.3. Chemical Gels
  • 4.2.2.4. Strippable Coating
  • 4.2.3. Electrochemical Method
  • 5. Decontamination in the radiological accident case
  • 5.1. Decontamination of settlements
  • 5.1.1. Recommended decontamination technologies
  • 5.1.2. Justification and Optimization
  • 5.2. Decontamination of people and personnel
  • 5.2.1. Harmful effects of emergency radiation exposure skin
  • 5.2.2. General protective actions in case of radioactive contamination
  • 5.3. Contamination Control
  • 5.3.1. Contamination Control Practices
  • 5.3.2. Contamination Control of Exposed People
  • 5.3.3. General Guidelines for Operation of a Controlled Contamination Area
  • 5.3.4. Factors influencing decontamination efficiency
  • 5.4. Impact of Responder Management Strategies on Public Experiences and Behaviour During Decontamination
  • 5.4.1. Getting People to Agree to Undergo Decontamination
  • 5.4.2. Helping People to Undergo Decontamination Quickly and Efficiently
  • 5.4.3. Encouraging People to Cooperate with Each Other During Decontamination
  • 5.4.4. Making People Feel Less Anxious
  • 5.4.5. Understanding the Needs of Vulnerable Groups
  • 5.4.6. Recommendations for Optimising Management of Mass Decontamination
  • CONCLUSION
  • References

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